Autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a group of conditions that include difficulty in communication, social anxiety, compulsive repetitive behaviour and heightened sensory perceptions. Though not a direct cause, the condition can lead to other health issues including sleep problems, mental health issues, gastrointestinal problems and a general developmental delay.
Since it is a spectrum, every individual with ASD manifests the condition through different characteristics, in differing proportions. Autism itself can be severe or mild, based on the challenges faced by an individual and how that deficiency affects their life. In fact, many autistic people are found to be exceptionally good at certain tasks despite struggling with social cues and expressing themselves through words.
The cause of ASD is not known, but scientists have long presumed there are underlying genetic causes. Several researchers across the globe are continuously improving the findings of each other in this regard, and they claim they are pretty close to understanding the genetic mutations that cause autism.
There is also no proven cure for the condition. However, there are many interventions and therapies that can be useful in dealing with one or several characteristics. These methodologies can help in reducing the impairment caused by the traits and improve the quality of life of the person with ASD as well as their caregivers/families. Interventions are also highly personalised.